urinary incontinence symptom


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urinary incontinence symptom


1. What is Urinary Incontinence?

2. Name and define six types of incontinence.

3. What is the physiologic cause and type(s) of incontinence associated with:

a)Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

b)Uterine prolapse after vaginal delivery

c)Paraplegia after a spinal cord injury urinary incontinence symptom


e)Parknson’s disease

f)Diabetes Mellitus

g)Diabetes Insipidus

4. Describe the class, primary use, and pharmacodynamics of the following drugs in creating incontinence







h)BENZODIAZIPINE urinary incontinence symptom





5. Some of the antimuscarinics can cross the blood–brain barrier. What are the properties of a drug that would make them more likely to cross the blood–brain barrier?

6. What symptoms could be reported as adverse side effects in a drug that was able to cross the blood–brain barrier?

7. Some of the antimuscarinic agents are metabolised by the cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drawing on your knowledge of these important metabolising enzymes, explain the effect of the cytochrome P450 enzymes

8. List some of the drugs or foods that could interfere with the metabolism of the antimuscarinic agents.

9. Bearing in mind Lorraine’s identification of the most bothersome urinary incontinence symptom, what would be your choice of first-line management for her?

10. With reference to their pharmacological properties, describe how antimuscarinics can lead to the side effects of dry mouth and constipation.

11. Contraindications to the use of antimuscarinic drugs are all of the following except:

a) Glaucoma

b) Myasthenia

c) Bronchial asthma

d) Paralytic ileus and atony of the urinary bladder

12. Adverse peripheral effects, such as loss of accommodation, dry mouth, tachycardia, urinary retention, constipation are related to: urinary incontinence symptom

a) Alpha adrenoreceptor blockade

b) Muscarinic cholinoreceptor blockade

c) Supersesitivity of the dopamine receptor d) Dopamine receptor blockade

13. Please create a drug card for: