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Must be done 12 noon EST.. No exceptions
please answer original forum 1,2 and 3 separately , with a minimum of 250 words and respond to both students separately with a minimum of 100 words each.
First page Original Forum #1 with references
rohr response with references
crandLe response with references
second page Original Forum with References
rohr response with references
carver response with references
third page Original Forum with References
Rohr response with references
tiffani response with references
Page 1 Original Forum
What do YOU consider to be the great threat to port security in the next decade? Is it increased reliance on cyber systems? More automation in operations? The continued unrest around the world? The lack of diversity within the MTS work force?
Based on the readings and discussions throughout this course, we have identified that one of the biggest threats facing port security and the maritime industry in general is that of a cyber-attack. Already in the first quarter of 2021 there have been ten major cyber attacks made throughout the world and dozens if not hundreds of smaller ones that do not make the headlines (Meharchandani, 2021). Thus, it stands to reason that the next decade will be more of the same.
We have also seen an increase in a reliance on cyber controlled systems and automation across the manufacturing and transportation system’s spectrum (DuBois, 2020). Covid-19 and the steps taken by governments across the world have shown that automation and a subsequent command and control structure, if you will, for it will allow business as usual to proceed in the future as long as the physical infrastructure is not damaged or destroyed. Elon Musk has been working on self-driving cars and semi-trucks to ease our everyday lives. It is only a matter of time until we see “self-driving” ships transiting the ocean with thousands of containers or other goods (PR Newswire, 2021). These things are in the works and are only possible through the integration of cyber systems into the very heart of the machines.
The combined reliance on automation to both reduce the manufacturing and transportation costs as well as streamline the transportation process and the required use of cyber systems to make it happen will lead to these being the top threats to port security and the security of the maritime transportation system in the coming decade.
DuBois, E. (2020, December 28). Experts discuss the growth of cyber threats amid the pandemic. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/12/28/experts-discuss-the-growth-of-cyber-threats-amid-the-pandemic/.
Meharchandani, D. (2021, April 20). 10 Major Cyber Attacks Witnessed Globally in Q1 2021. Security Boulevard. https://securityboulevard.com/2021/04/10-major-cyber-attacks-witnessed-globally-in-q1-2021/.
I foresee being the greatest threat to port security within the next decade would be an ever-more presence of cybersecurity crimes involving data theft. With artificial intelligence (AI) being implemented into technology, it is the chosen medium being utilized to secure and protect the masses. Current threats maritime ports battle against include: terrorism, piracy, smuggling of stowaways, and drugs, cargo theft and fraud, bribery and extortion. According to MARSH, insurance brokers and risk advisors of the industry, ‘geopolitical tension’ has ranked as the number one issue (referencing category) of “…the likelihood of a certain issue occurring within the next 10ys…Consequently, creating a ‘cyber-attack and data theft’; which, fell second amongst this list (MARSH, 2019). Due to past agency and national challenges that were met with resolutions deemed unfair; this unrest led to “… changes that has marked implications for the global trade patterns and growth that propel industry activity, as well as for the global alliance structures that have underpinned maritime security, which are now shifting (MARSH, 2019).”
Considering gender roles and diversity within the maritime industry; males are dominant operators over females. History, has uncovered …companies overlooking key groups of talent – based on gender, culture, or ethnicity – will fail to evolve and adapt to the new reality (Despina Panayiotou Theodosiou,, 2019).” Fortunately,
according to interviewee and CEO of Tototheo Maritime and President of WISTA, data has begun to reflect a change in varying categories; and shipping and port operations is one industry where a “… changing world, with changing technology, demands a changing maritime workforce… Theodosious continues, “…Shipping is changing, but the question remains to be seen, is it changing quickly enough… Diversity has to be pushed higher up the agenda… and thankfully, that is beginning to happen (Despina Panayiotou Theodosiou,, 2019).”
Despina Panayiotou Theodosiou,. (2019, November 28). Article: Maritime-Executive. Retrieved from Diversity Key to Unlocking Maritime Sustainability: https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/diversity-key-to-unlocking-maritime-sustainability
MARSH. (2019). RESEARCH & BRIEFINGS: MARSH. Retrieved from Top Global Maritime Issues Facing the Shipping Industry: https://www.marsh.com/eg/en/insights/research-briefings/top-global-maritime-issues-facing-the-shipping-industry.html
Page 2 Original Forum
Evaluate the importance of maritime trade and the Maritime Transportation System to the world economies and compare the challenges associated with port security. As part of your discussion, highlight the impact of economic dependency on maritime transportation, and illustrate the importance of mega ports to international trade. For example, what percentage of goods and services are transported by maritime means and what is the impact on the world economy?
As it has been stated several times throughout the lesson and the assigned readings, maritime trade is what makes the world go ‘round. Roughly ninety percent of all world trade is transported via the waterways; weather they are domestic passages like rivers and canals or across the oceans. The bottom line is that the international trade we have today would not be possible through just the combined use of rail, trucks, or planes. Andrew Goodwin’s presentation, “The Economic Value of Shipping and Maritime Activity in Europe” is a great example of how dependent the world is on maritime shipping. Not just for the movement of cargo, but for jobs and the associated economic value. The economies of many countries rely on the goods that they import and export. Take the oil producing nations in the Middle East, most rely on their exportation of oil as a source of revenue in order to import foods, building materials, and luxury items. If the ability of these countries to import or export goods is stopped, or heavily reduced, the effects can be devastating to the economy. This theory has been and sometimes still is the way wars are fought. Take the American Civil War as an example, General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan was to strangle the Confederacy into submission buy eliminating the ability to import machinery, weapons, and munitions while preventing the export of raw materials like cotton, tobacco, and foodstuffs. It was a war of attrition, but it was shortened by the blockading of Confederate ports and the Union’s control of the Mississippi River (GPO, 1897). This was also a part of the practice of sieges, although they were more concerned with limiting the food and water supply to starve out those who were besieged. While ports are rarely blockaded anymore, disrupting port operations can have long term effects on a country’s economy. Therefore, it is necessary for a country to protect its ports. In this day and age, the threat to a country’s ports are most likely to come from terrorists since the repercussions of a Nation disabling another’s port would be war.Due to the interconnectedness of modern trade, the effects of a country’s port being disabled could be felt all around the world much like the effects of the traffic stoppage through the Suez canal was and still is (Shalvey, 2021).
As our reading suggests, (UNCTAD, 2016) maritime transport is the backbone of globalization, supports supply chains and enable international trade. While generating employment, income and revenue; maritime transport enables industrial development by supporting manufacturing growth; linking consumers to intermediate and capital goods industries; and promoting regional economic and trade integration. Maritime transport system, often referred to as maritime logistics, a central integrated component of global logistics systems, is imposed to provide not only transport-related services but also other related and wider logistics services in a more efficient and effective manner (Song & Panayides, 2015).
Due to trade tension with China, seaborn transport was met with some disruption in 2019, raising only .5% world GDP, compared to 2.8% world GDP the previous year (UNCTAD, 2020). Though this was the lowest level since the economic downturn in 2008-09, maritime industry still managed to transport more than 11 billion tons of cargo (UNCTAD, 2020) globally. The pandemic was yet another interference of more than 4% world GDP contraction in 2020 but is projected to level out this year (UNCTAD, 2020).
Spencer et al., (2019) states that with 90% of global trade moving by maritime transport, it is imperative that there must be a balance of national security and economic prosperity. At the 10th Annual Maritime Risk Symposium, RADM Tiongson addressed those current and emerging risks to the maritime transport system. Of those mentioned, I would suggest the prevalent security challenges is due to the increasing growth of the transport sector, not just in throughput, but larger vessels and port alike. This is all cause and effect that only intensifies the need for higher visibility of personnel, cargo, and infrastructure.
UNCTAD, Review of maritime transport, 2016: report1-104 (2016). New York, NY; United Nations Publication.
Song, D.-W., & Panayides, P. M. (2015). Maritime Logistics: a guide to contemporary shipping and port management. KOGAN PAGE.
UNCTAD, Review of maritime transport, 2020: report1–146 (2020). New York, NY; United Nations Publication.
Spencer, C. (2019, November). 2019 Annual Maritime Risk Symposium. 10th Annual Maritime Risk Symposium. https://www.sunymaritime.edu/MRS2019.
Page 3 Original Forum
Consider how you would categorize the vulnerabilities of Port systems to disruption by discussing the significance of the Secure Freight Initiative. Be sure to explain the importance of CPB’s Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (CT-PAT), and the resultant implications in delays in screening cargo on port operations.
The Secure Freight Initiative is a great idea. This is similar to the discussions of last week where different ways of scanning or screening containers at ports was the topic. Through the use of the radiography equipment per the Secure Freight Initiative, an increased level of safety at a port can be achieved for inbound containers (DHS, 2019). This process could cause some delays in the containers being loaded onboard ships, an improvement to the process could help reduce this. Increasing the number of monitors and trained personnel reviewing the inbound containers could prevent bottlenecks and ultimately delays in cargo processing. This addresses the inbound land cargo and containers, but the inbound seaborne containers are still at a low level of safety due to the unknown processing at there port of origin. This low level of safety is increased through the Customs and Border Protection’s implementation of the Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (DHS, 2021). This allows for cargo and containers from trusted or verified partners to more quickly process their cargo since they follow a standardized practice of securing the containers. Afterall, the cooperation of all involved helps prevent security issues and delays in transportation; all of which would increase costs. Coupling the previous initiatives with the Container Security Initiative (DHS, 2019), allows for an increased level of safety for all ports since the containers are to be scanned at the port of origin prior to being loaded onto a ship and the Customs and Border Protection Agency is notified of any suspicious containers. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019, May 31). CSI: Container Security Initiative. Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://www.cbp.gov/border-security/ports-entry/cargo-security/csi/csi-brief
The secure freight initiative is a combination of existing technology and proven nuclear detection devices. Containers from ports are scanned for radiation and information risk factors prior to being allowed to depart for the United States. Real time data is transferred to the United States to the Customs and Border Protection agency (DHS, 2019). If an alert occurs on a container, both Homeland Security and host officials receive an alert. The alerts or alarms are resolved local, protocols are in place to ensure resolution by the host government for any containers that are in-route to the United States (DHS, 2019).
There are multiple layers in the Security Freight Initiative. These multiple layers build upon a risk-based approach. To security the international supply chain the department of homeland security and customs and boarder protection agencies leverage other programs to assist in the initiative (DHS, 2019). The National Nuclear Security Administration Mega Ports Initiative is an initiative that allow foreign governments to receive and install specialized radiation equipment. This equipment is used to deter, detect, and interdict many different forms of shipments that have the potential to contain nuclear and radioactive materials (DHS, 2019).
Another initiative is the Container Security Initiative which allows the customs and boarder protection agency the ability to inspect any high-risk container prior to those containers being loaded onto vessels that are on their way to the United States. The customs trade partnership against terrorism is a partnership with over 6,000 U.S. importers with the Department of Homeland Security that enables all their cargo that is to enter the country to be pre-screened (DHS, 2019).
DHS. (2019, September 8). The Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from Secure Freight Initiative: https://www.dhs.gov/secure-freight-initiative